According to UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 1, it is agreed that maintaining peace is crucial for the prosperity of the global population. UN SDG 16 aims to encourage equitable, tranquil, and broad-minded societies, while SDG 3 seeks to guarantee healthy lives and promote wellness for everyone. Tackling the problem of assaults on healthcare systems and personnel during conflicts is essential for the realization of both SDGs 3 and 16. The challenges faced in protecting and maintaining health services during times of armed conflict and civil unrest and the need to overcome these challenges has never been more important.
The principle of medical neutrality which promotes the freedom for physicians and aid personnel to care for the sick and injured without interference is being violated at some of the highest level seen. The targeting of healthcare workers has become an emerging tactic in conflict. Attacks on health care in armed conflict, including those on health workers, facilities, patients and transports, represent serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law. There is a relationship between conflict intensity and attacks on health workers and meta-data suggests that health workers are explicitly targeted and not necessarily attacked along with civilians.
Specific challenges in armed conflict include:
1. Insecurity and violence impeding access to healthcare facilities and personnel.
2. Limited availability of medical resources and equipment due to disrupted supply chains.
3. Inadequate funding and support from governments and international organizations.
4. Lack of trained healthcare professionals willing to work in conflict zones.
5. Destruction of healthcare infrastructure and facilities, leading to a lack of access to essential services.
6. Difficulties in coordinating and communicating with different parties involved in the conflict.
7. High rates of trauma injuries, including blast injuries and gunshot wounds, that require specialized care.
8. Infectious disease outbreaks due to poor sanitation and hygiene conditions.
9. Mental health challenges and psychosocial support needs for affected populations.
10. Ethical dilemmas, including providing care to combatants and ensuring impartiality in the provision of healthcare services.
With challenges we must persevere with tactical solutions. The deployment of following strategies are essential to sustaining health care services and respond to the unique challenges posed by armed conflict:
1. Protected Zones: Establish protected zones or safe havens for healthcare facilities and personnel. This can include designated buildings, areas, or even vehicles that are marked as safe zones for healthcare services. These protected zones would be declared and recognized by all parties involved in the armed conflict.
2. Negotiation and Mediation: Negotiate with all parties involved in the armed conflict to prioritize the delivery of healthcare services. This can be achieved through diplomatic and political channels, with the support of the international community. Establishing a dialogue to reach a compromise will help to prevent attacks on healthcare facilities and personnel.
3. Communication and Coordination: Improve communication and collaboration between healthcare providers and military authorities. This strategy will help to enhance the protection of healthcare services by providing essential information to military authorities. This cooperation can lead to the establishment of better security measures, as well as the prevention of casualties and damages to healthcare services.
4. Training and Education: Provide training and education to healthcare personnel in conflict areas to help them understand the risks and challenges they may face. This can include training on practical measures such as evacuation procedures, first aid treatment for injuries, and emergency measures to safeguard healthcare services. This training will prepare healthcare personnel to operate under dangerous conditions and minimize the risk of casualties.
5. Assistance and Support: Provide financial and logistical support to healthcare providers and organizations involved in delivering services during armed conflicts. This can include providing funding for medical equipment, training, and protective gear. Providing such assistance will facilitate the effective delivery of healthcare services and ensure that the services are delivered in a safe and secure manner.
Protecting and sustaining healthcare services in conflict zones require various approaches such as ensuring that medical services are respected as neutral and impartial entities by all sides of the conflict, increasing awareness about the importance of maintaining healthcare services, providing logistical and training support through humanitarian aid agencies, and investing in education and training initiatives for healthcare workers.